Abstract：Carbon aerogels were dried successfully at ambient pressure by decreasing catalyst and exchanging solvents. SEM, BET and pore size distribution techniques were used to characterize the morphology and pore structure of the carbon aerogels. The structures of carbon aerogels are controlled from micro pore to macro pore by changing the concentration of catalyst and solvent. The size of the particles increases from less than 100 nm, 100~200 nm to 1~2 mm with R/C ratios increasing from 500, 1000 to 1500. The pore diameter of carbon aerogels decreases from 60 nm, 40 nm to 15 nm by increasing RF concentration from 30%, 40% to 50% while R/C ratio being 1000. The samples prepared by conventional drying have low density of 250~650 kg/m3 and a high specific surface area of 250~550 m2/g. The reaction mechanism of the sol-gel process and the way to dry aerogels at ambient pressure by enhancing material intensity and reducing capillary pressure were discussed.