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The Chinese Journal of Process Engineering ›› 2024, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (1): 58-70.DOI: 10.12034/j.issn.1009-606X.222439

• Research Paper • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Study on dissolution of heavy metals from lead and zinc smelting waste acid slag

Kai QIAN1,2,  Shili ZHENG2*,  Ying ZHANG2*,  Hongming ZHOU3,  Fen JIAO4,  Shimin CHEN5,  #br# Shan QIAO2,  Xing ZOU1   

  1. 1. School of Metallurgy and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China 2. Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, National Engineering Research Center of Green Recycling for Strategic Metal Resources, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China 3. School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083, China 4. School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083, China 5. Hunan Tengchi Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd., Chenzhou, Hunan 423312, China
  • Received:2022-12-01 Revised:2023-03-14 Online:2024-01-28 Published:2024-01-26


钱凯1,2, 郑诗礼2*, 张盈2*, 周宏明3, 焦芬4, 陈世民5, 乔珊2, 邹兴1   

  1. 1. 北京科技大学冶金与生态工程学院,北京 100083 2. 中国科学院过程工程研究所绿色过程与工程重点实验室,战略金属资源绿色循环利用国家工程研究中心,北京 100190 3. 中南大学材料科学与工程学院,湖南 长沙 410083 4. 中南大学资源加工与生物工程学院,湖南 长沙 410083 5. 湖南腾驰环保科技有限公司,湖南 郴州 423312
  • 通讯作者: 张盈 zhangying@ipe.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

Abstract: The heavy metal-containing waste acid slag generated in the lead and zinc smelting industry poses a considerable environmental risk. And at the same time it is also a resource. The purification of the calcium sulfate matrix is the first step for the downstream resource utilization of the slag. In this work, a comprehensive phase and composition analysis was carried out on the waste acid slag, and the distribution characteristics of the heavy metals and calcium sulfate in the slag were obtained. Then the effects of heating time, temperature and sulfuric acid concentration on the leaching rate of key elements such as Fe, Zn, As, Pb, Cd, and Sb were studied, and the dissolution rule of these key elements in acid medium was systematically explored. What's more, based on the general relationship between the crystal phase of calcium sulfate and the water activity and temperature, the effects of the phase transition as a result of the water activity regulation at atmospheric pressure or the hydrothermal environment in acidic medium on the dissolution of the metals were studied. The results showed that the effect was ideal when the heating time was 2 h, the heating temperature was 80℃, and the concentration of sulfuric acid was 1.0 mol/L. And the leaching rates of As, Zn, Sb, Cd, and Fe under the optimal conditions were all over 95%, with the leached CaSO4?2H2O residue showing smooth surface and in flake and rod mixed morphologies. Reducing the activity of water in the medium and hydrothermal conditions can promote the rotation of calcium sulfate. The dissolution of heavy metals in or between the crystal lattices of calcium sulfate can be further enhanced, assisted by the crystal transformation. As a consequence, the strengthened dissolution technology based on the crystal transformation of calcium sulfate is an effective way to purify the calcium sulfate matrix deeply.

Key words: smelting waste acid slag, sulfuric acid medium, dissolution of heavy metals, crystal transformation of calcium sulfate

摘要: 铅锌冶炼行业产生的重金属污酸渣对环境风险大,但同时也是一种可利用资源,硫酸钙基体净化是其资源化利用的第一步。本工作对污酸渣开展了全面的矿相解析,获得了污酸渣中重金属与硫酸钙的嵌布规律,并系统研究了加热时间、加热温度及硫酸浓度对污酸渣中Fe, Zn, As, Pb, Cd, Sb等关键元素浸出率的影响,系统探究了这些元素在酸性介质中的溶出规律,且基于硫酸钙晶相与介质水活度、温度的一般规律,开展了硫酸介质中常压下水活度调控致相转和高温水热致相转对元素溶出的影响。结果表明,加热时间为2 h、加热温度为80℃及硫酸浓度为.01 mol/L时效果较为理想,且在此优化溶出条件下,污酸渣中As, Zn, Sb, Cd, Fe的浸出率均可达95%以上,浸出残渣为表面光滑的薄片状和棒状的二水硫酸钙晶相;降低介质中水的活度和水热条件能够促进硫酸钙的相转,借助硫酸钙形态或晶型的转化,可进一步强化硫酸钙晶格内或晶间重金属的溶出。基于硫酸钙转晶的金属强化溶出技术是硫酸钙渣基体深度净化的有效手段。

关键词: 冶炼污酸渣, 硫酸介质, 重金属溶出, 硫酸钙相转